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NOTIFICATION: These notes are published for educational purposes. Using these notes is under your own responsibility and risk. These notes are given ‘as is’. I do not take responsibilities for how you use them.

PDF Content:

  • Copy constructor (continued)
  • Copy constructor and templates
  • Explicit copy constructor
  • Use of const with copy constructor
  • Assignment operator
  • Exception safe code
  • Const correctness
  • Const pointers
  • Const functions
  • Const overloading
  • Const iterator
  • Const cast
  • Conceptual vs. bitwise constness

 

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[THIS POST IS IN CONSTRUCTION]

In my spare time, I will be learning about Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Data Science and other topics where Python is the interpreted language of choice.
Below are some fast notes I cleaned up to share to however is interested. Disclaimer: I am not responsible of the content or how you use the content. The responsibility fall on you.

We can import modules using the import keyword.

Note: Remember to use 4 spaces for indentation and use UTF-8 encoding with your editor when saving py files.

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NOTIFICATION: These examples are provided for educational purposes. The use of this code and/or information is under your own responsibility and risk. The information and/or code is given ‘as is’. I do not take responsibilities of how they are used.

Example of Disjktra algorithm using heap.

disjktra_heap.c:

/*
 * Program: 09
 * Author: Alejandro G. Carlstein
 * Description: Disjktra Algorithm using heap
 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <malloc.h>
#include <limits.h>

#define MAX_EDGES 100001
#define MAX_VERTICES  500001
#define LEFT(i) ((i << 1) + 1)
#define RIGHT(i) ((i << 1) + 2)
#define DIV_BY_2(i) (i >> 1)
#define FALSE 0
#define TRUE 1

#define DBG_LV0 0
#define DBG_LV1 0
#define DBG_LV2 0
#define DBG_LV3 0

struct Edge{
  int startVertex;
  int endVertex;
  unsigned int length;
} edges[MAX_EDGES];

struct Vertex{
	unsigned int id;
	unsigned int weight;
	struct Vertex *predecessor;
	short visited;
} vertices[MAX_VERTICES];

struct AdjList{
	struct Vertex *vertexPointer;
	int edgeIndex;
	struct AdjList *next;
} *adjList[MAX_VERTICES], *headAdj, *newAdj;

void init(void);
void readStandardInput(void);
void printEdges(void);
void disjktraAlgorithm(void);
void initializeSingleSource(void);
void printVertices(void);
void buildAdjacentVertexList(void);
void insertAdjVerticesOf(int vertexIndex);
void insertAdjVertex(int vertexIndex, int adjVertexIndex, int edgeIndex);
void printAdjList(int vertexIndex);
void makePriorityQueue(int heapArray[], int *length);
void printArray(int array[], int length);
void buildMinHeap(int heapArray[], int length);
void minHeapify(int heapArray[], int index, int heapSize);
int heapExtractMin(int heapArray[], int *heapSize);
void exchange(int *a, int *b);
void addVertexToList(struct AdjList *vertexList, struct Vertex *vertex);
void relax(int startVertex, int endVertex, int edge);
void printRoute(void);
void debug(int debugLevel, char *fmt, ...);
void errorDoExit(char *fmt, ...);

int numVertices, numEdges;
int main(int argc, char *argv[]){

	init();
	disjktraAlgorithm();
	printVertices();
	return 0;
}

void init(void){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'init()');
	readStandardInput();
}

void readStandardInput(void){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'readStandardInput()');	

	scanf('%d %d', &numVertices, &numEdges);
	debug(DBG_LV1, '# of vertices: %d, # of edges: %d', numVertices, numEdges);
	printEdges();
}

void printEdges(void){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'printEdges()');	

	int i;
	for(i = 0; i < numEdges; ++i){
		scanf('%d %d %d', &edges[i].startVertex, &edges[i].endVertex, &edges[i].length);
		debug(DBG_LV1, '[%d](%d <%d> %d)', i, edges[i].startVertex, edges[i].length, edges[i].endVertex);
	}
}

// Disjktra(G, w, s)	//s is source vertex - w is weight
void disjktraAlgorithm(void){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'disjktraAlgorithm()');	

	// InitializeSingleSource(G, s);
	initializeSingleSource();

	//	S <- 0    // It will hold vertices
	struct AdjList *vertexList = NULL;

	//	Q <- V[G] // Make a priority Queue for the vertices
	int heapArray[numVertices];
	int heapLength = 0;
	makePriorityQueue(heapArray, &heapLength);

	//	while Q != 0
	while(heapLength > 0){	

		//		do u <- extractMin(Q)
		if (DBG_LV1) printArray(heapArray, heapLength);
		int vertexIndex = heapExtractMin(heapArray, &heapLength);
		debug(DBG_LV1, '[!]vertex[%d] Weight: %d\n', vertexIndex, vertices[vertexIndex].weight);
		if (DBG_LV1) printArray(heapArray, heapLength);		

		//S <- S U {u}
		addVertexToList(vertexList, &vertices[vertexIndex]);

		//		for each vertex v e Adj[u]
		struct AdjList *tempAdj;
		tempAdj = adjList[vertexIndex];
		while(tempAdj != NULL){
			//			do relax(u, v, w);
			relax(vertexIndex, tempAdj->vertexPointer->id, tempAdj->edgeIndex);
			tempAdj = tempAdj->next;
		}
		vertices[vertexIndex].visited = TRUE;
	}

}	

void initializeSingleSource(void){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'initializeSingleSource()');	

	int i;
	for(i = 0; i < numVertices; ++i){
		vertices[i].id = i;
		vertices[i].weight = INT_MAX;
		vertices[i].predecessor = NULL;	// p[v] predecessor that is either another vertex or NULL
		vertices[i].visited = FALSE;
	}
	vertices[0].weight = 0;

	if (DBG_LV1) printVertices();

	buildAdjacentVertexList();	

	if (DBG_LV1){
		debug(DBG_LV1, '*List of all adj. vertices*');
		for (i = 0; i < numVertices; ++i)
			printAdjList(i);
	}

}

void printVertices(void){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'printVertices()');  

	printf('[ ]');
	int i;
	for (i = 0; i < numVertices; ++i)
		printf('[%d]', i);

	if (DBG_LV1){
		printf('\n[i]');
		for (i = 0; i < numVertices; ++i)
			printf(' %d ' , vertices[i].id);
	}

	printf('\n[W]');
	for (i = 0; i < numVertices; ++i)
		if (vertices[i].weight == INT_MAX){
			printf(' ! ');
		}else{
			printf(' %d ' , vertices[i].weight);
		}

	if(DBG_LV1){
		printf('\n[*]');
		for (i = 0; i < numVertices; ++i)
			if (vertices[i].predecessor == NULL){
				printf(' N ');
			}else{
				printf(' %d ' , (int)vertices[i].predecessor->id);
			}
	}

	if(DBG_LV1){
		printf('\n[V]');
		for (i = 0; i < numVertices; ++i)
			if (vertices[i].visited == TRUE){
				printf(' Y ');
			}else{
				printf(' N ');
			}
	}

	printf('\n');
}

void buildAdjacentVertexList(void){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'buildAdjacentVertexList()');

	int vertexIndex;
	for (vertexIndex = 0; vertexIndex < numVertices; ++vertexIndex){
		insertAdjVerticesOf(vertexIndex);
	}
}

void insertAdjVerticesOf(int vertexIndex){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'insertAdjVerticesOf(vertexIndex: %d)', vertexIndex);	

	debug(DBG_LV1, ' Searching for adjacent Vertices');
	int edgeIndex;
	for (edgeIndex = 0; edgeIndex < numEdges; ++edgeIndex){

		int startVertex = edges[edgeIndex].startVertex;
		int endVertex = edges[edgeIndex].endVertex;
		debug(DBG_LV1, '  Edge[%d](%d <%d> %d)', edgeIndex, startVertex, edges[edgeIndex].length, endVertex);

		debug(DBG_LV1, '  (startVertex (%d) == (%d) vertexIndex)?', startVertex, vertexIndex);
		if (startVertex == vertexIndex){
			debug(DBG_LV1, '   YES');
			insertAdjVertex(vertexIndex, endVertex, edgeIndex);
			insertAdjVertex(endVertex, vertexIndex, edgeIndex);
		}
	}
	if(DBG_LV1) printAdjList(vertexIndex);
}

void insertAdjVertex(int vertexIndex, int adjVertexIndex, int edgeIndex){

	struct AdjList *headAdj;
	headAdj = adjList[vertexIndex];	

	struct AdjList *newAdj = (struct AdjList *) malloc(sizeof(struct AdjList));
	newAdj->vertexPointer = &vertices[adjVertexIndex];
	newAdj->edgeIndex = edgeIndex;
	newAdj->next = NULL;

	if (headAdj == NULL){
		newAdj->next = adjList[vertexIndex];
		adjList[vertexIndex] = newAdj;
	}else{
		struct AdjList *currentAdj = adjList[vertexIndex];
		while (currentAdj->next != NULL)
			currentAdj = currentAdj->next;
		newAdj->next = currentAdj->next;
		currentAdj->next = newAdj;
	}
}

void printAdjList(int vertexIndex){
	debug(DBG_LV0, '**printAdjList(vertexIndex: %d)', vertexIndex);	

	debug(DBG_LV1, 'Adjacent Vertices of Vertex: %d', vertexIndex);

	struct AdjList *tempAdj;
	tempAdj = adjList[vertexIndex];	

	if (tempAdj == NULL){
		debug(DBG_LV1, ' tempAdj is empty');
	}else{		

		printf('[%d]', vertexIndex);
		int i = 0;
		while(tempAdj != NULL){
			printf('[%d]', i++);
			tempAdj = tempAdj->next;
		}

		printf('\n[i]');
		tempAdj = adjList[vertexIndex];
		while(tempAdj != NULL){
			printf(' %d ', tempAdj->vertexPointer->id);
			tempAdj = tempAdj->next;
		}

		printf('\n[W]');
		tempAdj = adjList[vertexIndex];
		while(tempAdj != NULL){
			if (tempAdj->vertexPointer->weight == INT_MAX){
				printf(' ! ');
			}else{
				printf(' %d ' , tempAdj->vertexPointer->weight);
			}
			tempAdj = tempAdj->next;
		}

		printf('\n[*]');
		tempAdj = adjList[vertexIndex];
		while(tempAdj != NULL){
			if (tempAdj->vertexPointer->predecessor == NULL){
				printf(' N ');
			}else{
				printf(' %d ' , tempAdj->vertexPointer->predecessor->id);
			}
			tempAdj = tempAdj->next;
		}

		printf('\n[V]');
		tempAdj = adjList[vertexIndex];
		while(tempAdj != NULL){
			if (tempAdj->vertexPointer->visited == TRUE){
				printf(' Y ');
			}else{
				printf(' N ');
			}
			tempAdj = tempAdj->next;
		}

		printf('\n');
	}
}

void makePriorityQueue(int heapArray[], int *length){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'makePriorityQueue(length: %d)', *length);

	int i;
	for (i = 0; i < numVertices; ++i)
		heapArray[i] = i;

	*length = numVertices;
	if (DBG_LV1) printArray(heapArray, *length);
	buildMinHeap(heapArray, *length);
	if (DBG_LV1) printArray(heapArray, *length);
	if (DBG_LV1) printVertices();
}

void printArray(int array[], int length){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'printArray(length: %d)', length);

	int i;
	for (i = 0; i < length; ++i)
		printf('[%d]', i);

	printf('\n');
	for (i = 0; i < length; ++i)
		printf(' %d ', array[i]);
	printf('\n');
}

void buildMinHeap(int heapArray[], int length){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'buildMinHeap(length: %d)', length);

	int heapSize = length;

	int index;
	for (index = DIV_BY_2(length); index > -1; --index)
		minHeapify(heapArray, index, heapSize);
}

void minHeapify(int heapArray[], int index, int heapSize){
	debug(DBG_LV2, 'minHeapify(index: %d, heapSize: %d)', index, heapSize);

	int smallestIndex = index;
	int leftIndex = LEFT(index);
	int rightIndex = RIGHT(index);
	debug(DBG_LV1, '-SmallestIndex: %d, leftIndex: %d, rightIndex: %d', smallestIndex, leftIndex, rightIndex);

	if (leftIndex <= heapSize && rightIndex <= heapSize){

		unsigned int indexValue = vertices[heapArray[index]].weight;
		debug(DBG_LV1,
					'INDEX: vertices[heapArray[%d]: %d].id: %d, .weight: %d',
					index, heapArray[index], vertices[heapArray[index]].id,
					indexValue);

		unsigned int leftValue = vertices[heapArray[leftIndex]].weight;
		debug(DBG_LV1,
					'LEFT VALUE: vertices[heapArray[%d]: %d].id: %d, .weight: %d',
					leftIndex, heapArray[leftIndex], vertices[heapArray[leftIndex]].id,
					leftValue);

		if ((leftIndex < heapSize) && (leftValue < indexValue))
			smallestIndex = leftIndex;

		debug(DBG_LV1, 'smallestIndex: %d', smallestIndex);

		unsigned int rightValue = vertices[heapArray[rightIndex]].weight;

		debug(DBG_LV1,
					'LEFT VALUE: vertices[heapArray[%d]: %d].id: %d, .weight: %d',
					rightIndex, heapArray[rightIndex], vertices[heapArray[rightIndex]].id,
					rightValue);

		if ((rightIndex < heapSize) && (rightValue < indexValue))
			smallestIndex = rightIndex;

		debug(DBG_LV1, 'smallestIndex: %d', smallestIndex);

		if (smallestIndex != index){
			exchange(&heapArray[index], &heapArray[smallestIndex]);
			minHeapify(heapArray, smallestIndex, heapSize);
		}
	}
}

int heapExtractMin(int heapArray[], int *heapSize){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'heapExtractMin(heapSize: %d)', *heapSize);

	if (*heapSize < 1)
		errorDoExit('Heap Underflow');

	buildMinHeap(heapArray, *heapSize);

	int min = heapArray[0];
	--*heapSize;
	heapArray[0] = heapArray[*heapSize];
	minHeapify(heapArray, 1, *heapSize);

	return min;
}

void exchange(int *a, int *b){
	debug(DBG_LV3, 'exchange(a: %d, b: %d)', *a, *b);

		int temp;
		temp = *a;
		*a = *b;
		*b = temp;
}

void addVertexToList(struct AdjList *vertexList, struct Vertex *vertex){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'addVertexToList()');	

	struct AdjList *newAdj = (struct AdjList *) malloc(sizeof(struct AdjList));
	newAdj->vertexPointer = vertex;
	if (vertexList == NULL){
		newAdj->next = vertexList;
		vertexList = newAdj;
	}else{
		struct AdjList *currentAdj = vertexList;
		while (currentAdj->next != NULL)
			currentAdj = currentAdj->next;
		newAdj->next = currentAdj->next;
		currentAdj->next = newAdj;
	}
}

void relax(int startVertex, int endVertex, int edgeIndex){
	debug(DBG_LV0, 'relax(startVertex: %d, endVerted: %d, edgeIndex: %d)', startVertex, endVertex, edgeIndex);	

	unsigned int weight = vertices[startVertex].weight + edges[edgeIndex].length;

	debug (DBG_LV1, 'vertices[%d].weight(%d) > (%d)weight', endVertex, vertices[endVertex].weight, weight);
	if (vertices[endVertex].weight > weight){
		vertices[endVertex].weight = weight;
		vertices[endVertex].predecessor = &vertices[startVertex];
	}
}	

void debug(int debugLevel, char *fmt, ...){
	if (debugLevel){
		va_list argp;
		fprintf(stdout, '[DBG] ');
		va_start(argp, fmt);
		vfprintf(stdout, fmt, argp);
		va_end(argp);
		fprintf(stdout, '\n');
	}
}

void errorDoExit(char *fmt, ...){
	va_list argp;
	fprintf(stderr, '[Error] ');
	va_start(argp, fmt);
	vfprintf(stderr, fmt, argp);
	va_end(argp);
	if (errno){
		fprintf(stderr, '=> %s\n', strerror(errno));
	}else{
		fprintf(stderr, '\n');
	}
	exit(1);
}

input.txt:

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(C++ – Part 2) Next >

NOTIFICATION: These notes are published for educational purposes. Using these notes is under your own responsibility and risk. These notes are given ‘as is’. I do not take responsibilities for how you use them.

PDF Content:

  • Struct
  • L-values and r-values
  • Reference
  • Malloc
  • Assertions vs. exceptions vs. special return values
  • Exception handling
  • Run Time Type Information (RTTI)
  • Translation Unit
  • Triangle problem
  • Type Casting – explicit, implicit, and traditional casting
  • Specific casting operators
  • Static_cast, reinterpret_cast, and const_cast
  • type_id
  • One definition rule (ODR)
  • Struct vs classes – class definition
  • Friends
  • Forward declaration / using forward declaration
  • Classes define slope
  • Scope resolution operator
  • Static class members
  • Encapsulation and Abstraction
  • Copy constructors

Cplusplus_1

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Here are some code examples written in C++
Even do they are written in C++, I would advice to compile them in Linux as I did. If you encounter any problems or errors, please let me know by providing an example of the code, input, output, and an explanation. Thanks
NOTIFICATION: These examples are provided for educational purposes. Using this code is under your own responsibility and risk. I do not take responsibilities of how they are used.

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